Step 1 Physical Purity
Any worship in Islam requires Taharat. A Muslim can not perform Salah, Fasting, Hajj, or Umrah, without Taharat. Therefore, Muh'rim (the person who intends to get into the state of Ihram) must clip his nails, remove the unwanted hair, and take a ghussal according to the Islami Sharia'. But, if you can't perform ghussal due to any cause, you must at least perform Wudu. Men can apply a small amount of Attar on their beards and head, but keep in mind not to apply the scent on the Ihram.
Step 2 Ihram
A Muh'rim wears an attire, particularly to perform Umrah or Hajj known as Ihram. For Men-It consists of two normal white seamless pieces of cloth. One piece goes around the waist covering the lower part of the body known as Izar. Meanwhile, the other piece is rapped over the upper body leaving the left shoulder uncovered. This piece of cloth is known as Rida. Moreover, the footwear shouldn't cover the ankles and heel and most parts of the foot should be left uncovered. Women aren't subjected to a specific dress code for Umrah. But, they must wear the Modest Islamic Attire with a Head Covering. They must keep their hands and face uncovered, although they can put on the socks to cover their feet (not mandatory). Some of the prohibitions for the state of Ihram are as follows.
- One must not associate passionately with his/her spouse
- The Muh'rim (for men only) should not wear any sewn cloth as an Ihraam Attire such as a shirt, cloak, etc
- Argue or fight with anyone
- Committing such sins that may label you as a Mushrik
- Cutting or filing of the nails
- Wearing perfume on Ihraam
It is preferable to put on your Ihram attire from your home. Moreover, it is mandatory to wear Ihram before reaching the premisses of Miqaat. Miqaat is the location where people get into their Ihram for Hajj and Umrah. There are Six Points of Miqaat i.e. Dhat Irq Miqaat, Yalamlam Miqaat, Masjid Dhul-Hulifa Miqaat, Juhfah Miqaat, Qarn Al-Manazil Taif Miqaat, and outer bounds of Haram (Masjid Ayesha, Masjid Jaranah, Masjid Hudabiya. The person will be bound to pay the atonement if he/she will fail to wear the Ihram on time.
Step 3 Salah Al-Ihram
Your state of Ihram isn't complete without offering Salah Al-Ihram. Make sure to perform Salah Al-Ihram before entering the limits of Miqat. It consists of Two Rakat Nafl, intended after wearing the Ihram. As you have not yet entered the spiritual state of Ihram, you can cover your head if you want to. Moreover, it is recommended to Recite Surah Al-Qafirun in the first Rakat, and Surah Al-Ikhlaas in the second Rakat. You can recite any other Surah you remember as well. End your salah with Dua and never forget to send Salawat upon Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H) before and after making the dua.
Narrated Umar Ibn-al Khateeb Tirmidhi
Dua is suspended between heaven and earth and none of it is taken up until you send the blessings upon your Prophet (P.B.U.H).
Step 4Intention for Umrah
You can make an intention for Umrah, the moment you enter into the state of Ihram. But, it is recommended to delay the intention until the very last moment (Reaching the Miqat), to avoid the restrictions of prohibitions for a longer period than required. You must make your intention verbally in such a tone in which you can hear yourself or a bit louder also as follows
لَبَّيْكَ اللَّهُمَّ عُمْرَةً, اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّيْ أُرِيْدُ الْعُمْرَةَ, اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّيْ أُرِيْدُ الْعُمْرَةَ فَيَسِّرْهَا لِيْ وَتَقَبَّلْهَا مِنِّيْ
After Niyyah, Talbiyah is mandatory to validate the Ihram and intention for Umrah. One must recite Talbiyah after making an intention for Umrah. Failure to do so before reaching Miqat will invalidate the Umrah undoubtedly. The Muh'rim should recite the following Talbiyah with four pauses. The (-) sign shows where the pause must be taken.
لَبَّيْكَ اللهُمَّ لَبَّيْكَ – لَبَّيْكَ لَا شَرِيْكَ لَكَ لَبَّيْكَ – إِنَّ الْحَمْدَ وَالنِّعْمَةَ لَكَ وَالْمُلْكَ – لَا شَرِيْكَ لَكَ
You are now a Muhrim. This is where you must be aware of all the rules to maintain the state of Ihram. If one violates the rules of Ihram, it is mandatory for that person to offer Sadaqah. Send Salawat upon Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H) after reciting Talbiyah. Furthermore, try not to break the chain of Talbiyah until you reach one of the doors of Masjid-al-Haram before performing Tawaf. Break the chain of Talbiyah once you've entered the Masjid Al-Haram.
Step 6 Reaching the Haram
The Haram (premisses) of Makkah is a sacred place where Muslims come to perform Hajj or Umrah. It is extended out to a number of miles around the Masjid-al-Haram. It is recommended to recite the following dua while entering the premises of Haram.
اَللَّهُمَّ هَذَا حَرَمُكَ وَأَمْنُكَ فَحَرِّمْنِي عَلَى النَّارِ، وَأَمِنِّي مِنْ عَذَابِكَ يَوْمَ تَبْعَثُ عِبَادَكَ، وَاجْعَلْنِي مِنْ أَوْلِيَائِكَ وَأَهْلِ طَاعَتِكَ.
Following are the prohibitions stated within the premisses of Haram.
- Muhrim must not cut or damage any plant or tree.
- A Muhrim should not intentionally harm or kill the animals or birds
- The person should not scare the pigeons intentionally within the premisses
- A person should not carry a weapon within the premisses of Haram
- Muhrim must refrain from arguments and fighting with other fellows
Step 7 Entering Masjid-al-Haram
Once you have reached your accommodation within the Makah, freshen up for a bit. But, make sure not to prolong the rest and reach the Masjid-al-Haram as soon as possible. It is highly recommended to enter the Masjid through Baab Al-Salam (the gate of peace). But most likely due to congestion, it's possible that you might not get a chance to enter through Baab Al-Salam. In that case, you may enter from any door of the Masjid. Enter the door of Masjid Al-Haram with your right foot and recite the dua for entering the mosque
.بِسْمِ اللهِ، اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ. اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي وَافْتَحْ لِي أَبْوَابَ رَحْمَتِك,
أَعُوذُ بِاللهِ الْعَظِيمِ، وَبِوَجْهِهِ الْكَرِيمِ، وَسُلْطَانِهِ الْقَدِيمِ، مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ
Step 8First sight of Kaaba
Once you've entered the mosque, lower your gaze until you reach the open space known as the Mataf area. Then with modesty, awe and admiration lift your gaze to see the captivating view of the Holy Kaaba. At this majestic glace, raise your hands and make multiple duas, with the purest heart and mind. Allah Subhaana Hu Wa Taala answers the supplications at this moment. Delay the period of making dua and make the most of this time. Recite a lot of Azkaar, and send multiple Salawat upon Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H). Recite the following three times
.اللّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ. اللّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ . لَآ اِلَهَ اِلَّا اللّٰهُ
اَللَّهُمَّ زِدْ أَهْلَ هَذَا الْبَيْتَ تَشْرِيفاً وَتَعْظِيماً وَتَكْرِيماً وَمَهَابَةً، وَزِدْ مَنْ شَرَّفَهُ وَكَرَّمَهُ مِمَّنْ حَجَّهُ أَوْ اعْتَمَرَهُ تَشْرِيفاً وَتَكْرِيماً وَتَعْظِيماً وَبِرّاً,
اَللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ السَّلاَمُ وَمِنْكَ السَّلَامُ، حَيِّنَا رَبَّنَا بِالسَّلاَمِ.
This is the Sunnah to recite these duas on the sighting of Kaaba.
Step 9Starting the Tawaf
There is a green line drawn on the ground, starting from the corner of Hajr-e-Aswad. That is your Starting Point for Tawaf. The person should start on that green line. This is the Kaaba's corner where Hajr-e-Aswad is situated and it faces the single minaret, while the other three corners of The Kaaba face the two minarets each. Also, there is a green light on the opposite side of the Hajr-e-Aswad to guide the people on where to start the Tawaf (circuit). Stand in a position there, in which Kaaba is on your left side and your right side faces the minaret. This is where you will start your Tawaf. Make an intention to start the Tawaf
اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّيْ أُرِيْدُ طَوَافَ بَيْتِكَ الْحَرَامِ فَيَسِّرْهُ لِيْ وَتَقَبَّلْهُ مِنِّيْ
Note- The Muhrim must complete the Seven Tawaf in continuity (one after another without a break). In case congregational prayer is about to start, pause your Tawaf and stay in your position. Finish the prayer and resume the circuit. There is no need to restart the circuit. Some Conditions apply for Wudu.
This practice includes kissing, touching, or saluting the Hajr-e-Aswad before starting each circuit. All three conditions have different situations and possibilities.
Kissing- It is highly recommended to kiss the Hajr-e-Aswad three times and recite bismi llāhi wallāhu akbar سْمِ اللَّهِ وَاللّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ. once.
Touching- If you can't find a chance to kiss the Hajr-e-Aswad, but can reach it, touch it with your hands and kiss your hands and recite bismi llāhi wallāhu akbar سْمِ اللَّهِ وَاللّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ.
Saluting- If both the situations are unable to be practiced due to any cause, face the Hajr-e-Aswad. Then, raise your hands with your palms facing the Hajar-e-Aswad and touch the lobes of your ears (like you do for Takbeer in Salah) and recite bismi llāhi wallāhu akbar سْمِ اللَّهِ وَاللّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ. You may also utter Tahlil (La'Ilaaha'Illa'Allah) and send Salawat upon Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H) at this point.
This practice is specifically for men when they perform Umrah. During the Tawaf men walk briskly with their chests sticking out in the first three circuits during Raml. Women should not perform Raml.
Step 12Rukn Al-Yamani Corner
Once you reach the Rukn Al-Yamani corner during the Tawaf, it is recommended to touch it with both your hands if possible and recite اللّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ (Allahu Akbar). Refrain from kissing the Rukn Al-Yamani or your hands after touching it. But in case you are unable to reach it with your hands due to too much congestion, move ahead without gesturing towards the Rukn Al-Yaman. Now, from the corner of Rukn Al-Yamani to the corner of Hajr-e-Aswad, it is Sunnah to recite the following dua.
Surah Al-Baqara Ayat#201
رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ
Step 13Completing the circuit
Your first circuit (Tawaf) is completed as soon as you reach back the corner of Hajr-e-Aswad. As you start your second Tawaaf, perform Istalaam again as mentioned at the beginning of the first Tawaaf, and recite سْمِ اللَّهِ وَاللّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ. bismi llāhi wallāhu akbar. There are a total of seven Istalaam during the Tawaaf. One in the starting and five in between.
Note- If you are in a state of Idtibah (for men), cover your shoulder with your Ihraam after completing the Tawaaf.
Step 14Perform Two Rakat Nafl
Once you have completed your Tawaaf (all seven circuits), make your way towards Mukaam-e-Ibrahimi reciting the following dua
Surah Al-Baqarah Ayat#125
وَاتَّخِذُوا مِنْ مَقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ مُصَلًّى
And take the Maqam Ibrahim as a place of Salah.
It is highly recommended to offer two Rakat Nafl behind the Mukaam-e-Ibrahimi. Stand in a position where Mukaam-e-Ibrahimi is in between you and the Kaaba and intend for two Rakat Nafl. It is Sunhah to recite Surah Al-Kafiroon in the first Rakat and recite Surah Al-Ikhlaas in the second Rakat after reciting Surah Al-Fatiha. However, if you don't get a chance to offer the prayer nowhere near Mukaam-e-Ibrahimi, you can choose to pray anywhere in the Masjid-al-Haram and recite the same dua mentioned above. End your Salah with dua.
Step 15Drinking Zamzam
Zamzam is available throughout the Masjid-al-Haram. After completing the Nafl and dua, make a wish before drinking the Zamzam. It could be for your health, success, repentance, or anything that comes to your heart and mind, and then have the Zamzam to your fill. It is Mustahab to stand and face the Kaaba while drinking the Zamzam. Recite Alhma'du'lillah after drinking The Holy Water of Zamzam. Furthermore, rub it on your face and body to purify yourself. Recite the following dua after drinking the Zamzam
اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ عِلْمًا نَافِعًا وَ رِزْقًا وَاسِعًا وَ شِفَاءً مِنْ كُلِّ دَاءٍ
Step 7Proceed towards Multazam
Multazam is the area between the Hajr-e-Aswad and The Door of Kaaba. Once you have drunk the Zamzam, head towards the Multazam and cling to the walls of the Holy Kaaba. Raise your hands higher than your head and reach out to the Multazam. Press your chest and cheeks against the wall and make whatever dua comes to your heart and mind. This is also one of the gateways between you and your Lord. Take your time and lengthen your supplication and ask for everything you could possibly ask for. However, it is hard to reach the Multazam due to congestion most of the time. In that case, face towards The Multazam, and make your dua from a distance.
Note- Before you proceed for Sai' (walk between Safa and Marwa Hills), offer the ninth Istalaam towards Hajr-e-Aswad. If you find it difficult to go back to the starting point, you can do Istalaam from a distance, but make sure that you must be facing the Hajr-e-Aswad.
Sai' is performed between The Two Hills of Safa and Marwa. It is a Sunnah to offer Sai' right after the Tawaaf. It is permissible to take a short break before Sai' in case you got tired due to Tawaf. You will be walking three kilometers, so it is better to restore your energy before starting the Sai'. Following are some rules for Sai'
- You must perform Sai' yourself
- Remain in the state of Ihram for Sai'
- Begin your first lap from Hill Safa and end it on the Hill Marwa
- You must walk during Sai' until you have a genuine reason to use other means (wheelchair etc)
- One must complete all the seven laps between Safa and Marwa
Step 17Reach the Safa Hill
As you walk towards the Safa Hill, recite the following once
ِإِنَّ الصَّفَا وَالْمَرْوَةَ مِن شَعَائِرِ اللَّهِ
Indeed, Safa and Marwa are from the Signs of Allah.
أَبْدَأُ بِمَا بَدَأَ اللهُ بِهِ
I begin with that which Allah has begun with.
Note- Do not repeat this verse at the start of each lap.
Step 18Start the Sai'
Now, when you have reached the Hill of Safa to start the Sai', Turn towards the Kaaba, and raise your hands (not touching the ears), then recite
اَللّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ، اَللّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ، اَللّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ، وَلِلّٰهِ الْحَمْدُ,
لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ، لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ، وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ,
لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اَللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ، اَنْجَزَ وَعْدَهُ وَنَصَرَ عَبْدَهُ وَهَزَمَ اَلْأَحْزَابَ وَحْدَهُ
Repeat this dua three times. Make supplications of your own too in between the recommended dua, and never forget to sed Salawat upon Prophet (P.B.U.H).
Starting from Safa towards Marwa, at a point, you will see a green light known as Milayn, approx 50 meters apart from one another. These lights indicate the distance where Hazrat Hajrah (R.A) ran between two Hills to get to the higher ground in search of water. Men should run between these lights at a medium pace and women should continue normally or can pick up a little bit of pace (refrain from running).
Step 20Reach the Marwa Hill
Now, when you reach the Marwa Hill, face towards the Kabaa and repeat the same dua you said at the beginning of the Sai'. Reaching Marwa hill completes your one lap, now return back to the Safa Hill to complete your second lap. Repeat this complete process, unless you have completed the seven laps.
Step 21Perform Halq and Taqsir
Your umrah will not be completed without this last step. One has to cut his/her hair as per the methods stated for both the genders. Halq- This method is only For Men. They should shave their heads completely after completing the Sai'. Taqsir- This method is For Women only. They should cut their hair short to the length of the fingertips.
Make sure to take the services from a Licensed Barber rather than any Unlincensed Street Barber. You may also find some licensed barbers at the door of Marwa Hill. Moreover, you can shave/cut your hair on your own as well.
Step 22 Exit the Haram
Now as you have completed your Umrah, you can leave the Masjid Al-Haram to have something to eat or go back to your accommodation. Step out with your left foot from Masjid-al-Haram and following the Sunnah recite the following dua
بِسْمِ اللهِ وَالصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَّامُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللهِ، اللَّهُمَّ إَنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ مِنْ فَضْلِكَ